An investigation into the astronomical conundrum has come to the fore following a four-year observing campaign conducted at the UK’s Jodrell Bank Observatory. An international team led by Jodrell Bank astronomers studied a repeating Fast Radio Burst, which emits very short duration bright radio pulses.
Using the 32 bursts discovered during the campaign, in conjunction with data from previously published observations, the team discovered emission from FRB 121102 follows a cyclic pattern.
This is an exciting result as it is only the second system where we believe we see this modulation in burst activity
Dr Kaustubh Rajwade
The radio bursts were observed in a window lasting approximately 90 days followed by a silent period of 67 days.
The same behaviour was then seen repeating every 157 days.
This discovery provides an important clue for identifying the origin of these enigmatic fast radio bursts.
- Space radio signals: What do radio bursts mean for alien life hunt?
The presence of a regular sequence in the burst activity could imply the powerful bursts are linked to the orbital motion of a massive star, a neutron star or a black hole.
Dr Kaustubh Rajwade of The University of Manchester, who led the new research, said: “This is an exciting result as it is only the second system where we believe we see this modulation in burst activity.
“Detecting a periodicity provides an important constraint on the origin of the bursts and the activity cycles could argue against a precessing neutron star.”
Repeating FRBs could be explained by the precession, resembling a wobbling top, of the magnetic axis of a highly magnetised neutron star.
But with current data scientists believe it may be hard to explain a 157-day precession period given the large magnetic fields expected in these stars.
A neutron star is the collapsed core of a giant star, the result of a supernova explosion.
It was thought a wobbling axis of a neutron star could be the cause of FRB 121102, but the new data suggests this is not the case.
The existence of FRBs was only discovered as recently as 2007 and they were initially thought to be one-off events related to a cataclysmic event such as an exploding star.
- NASA news: Parker Solar Probe completes fifth flyby of the Sun
This picture partly changed once FRB 121102 was seen to repeat in 2016.
However, until now, no-one realised these bursts were organised in a regular pattern.
Professor Benjamin Stappers, who leads the MeerTRAP project to hunt for FRBs using the MeerKAT telescope in South Africa said: “This result relied on the regular monitoring possible with the Lovell Telescope, and non-detections were just as important as the detections.”
The researchers confirmed FRB 121102 is only the second repeating source of FRBs to display such periodic activity.
To their surprise, the timescale for this cycle is almost 10 times longer than the 16-day periodicity exhibited by the first repeating source, FRB 180916.J10158+56, which was recently discovered by the CHIME telescope in Canada.
Duncan Lorimer who serves as Associate Dean for Research at West Virginia University and, along with PhD student Devansh Agarwal, helped develop the data analysis technique that led to the discovery, said: “This exciting discovery highlights how little we know about the origin of FRBs.
He added: “Further observations of a larger number of FRBs will be needed in order to obtain a clearer picture about these periodic sources and elucidate their origin.”
Source: Read Full Article